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          Institute: MPI für Chemie     Collection: Publikationen MPI für Chemie     Display Documents

ID: 18230.0, MPI für Chemie / Publikationen MPI für Chemie
Carbonaceous aerosols over the Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX): Chemical characterization, optical properties, and probable sources
Authors:Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Gabriel, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.; Ogren, J.; Sheridan, P.; Streets, D. G.
Date of Publication (YYYY-MM-DD):2002-09
Title of Journal:Journal of Geophysical Research
Journal Abbrev.:J. Geophys. Res.
Issue / Number:D19
Sequence Number of Article:8030
Review Status:Peer-review
Audience:Experts Only
Abstract / Description:[1] We measured carbonaceous material and water-soluble ionic species in the fine fraction (D-p < 1.3 μm) of aerosol samples collected on NCAR's C-130 aircraft during the intensive field phase (February-March 1999) of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX). Polluted layers were present over most of the study region north of the equator at altitudes up to 3.2 km. The estimated aerosol mass (sum of carbonaceous and soluble ionic aerosol components) of fine-mode particles in these layers was 15.3 +/- 7.9 μg m(-3). The major components were particulate organic matter (POM, 35%), SO42- (34%), black carbon (BC, 14%), and NH4+ (11%). The main difference between the composition of the marine boundary layer (MBL, 0 to similar to1.2 km), and the overlying residual continental boundary layer (1.2 to similar to3.2 km) was a higher abundance of SO42- relative to POM in the MBL, probably due to a faster conversion of SO2 into SO42- in the MBL. Our results show that carbon is a major, and sometimes dominant, contributor to the aerosol mass and that its contribution increases with altitude. Low variability was observed in the optical properties of the aerosol in the two layers. Regression analysis of the absorption coefficient at 565 nm on BC mass (BC < 4.0 μg C m(-3)) yielded a specific absorption cross section of 8.1 +/- 0.7 m(2) g(-1) for the whole period. The unusually high fraction of BC and the good correlation between the absorption coefficient and BC suggest that BC was responsible for the strong light absorption observed for the polluted layers during INDOEX. High correlation between BC and total carbon (TC) (r(2) = 0.86) suggest that TC is predominantly of primary origin. Good correlations were also found between the scattering coefficient at 550 nm and the estimated aerosol mass for the fine fraction. These yielded a specific scattering cross section of 4.9 +/- 0.4 m(2) g(-1). The observed BC/TC, BC/OC, SO42-/BC, and K+/BC ratios were fairly constant throughout the period. These ratios suggest that between 60 and 80% of the aerosol in the polluted layers during INDOEX originated from fossil fuel and between 20 and 40% from biofuel combustion.
Free Keywords:carbonaceous aerosols; INDOEX; chemical characterization; optical properties; sources; aerosols
External Publication Status:published
Document Type:Article
Communicated by:N. N.
Affiliations:MPI für Chemie/Biogeochemie
External Affiliations:Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA; NOAA, Climate Monitoring & Diagnost Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA; Argonne Natl Lab, Decis & Informat Sci Div, Argonne, IL 60439 USA
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