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          Institute: MPI für medizinische Forschung     Collection: Abteilung Biophysik     Display Documents

ID: 21927.0, MPI für medizinische Forschung / Abteilung Biophysik
Mesomorphism, Isomerization, and Dynamics in a New Series of Pyramidic Liquid Crystals
Translation of Title:Mesomorphism, Isomerization, and Dynamics in a New Series of Pyramidic Liquid Crystals
Authors:Zimmermann, Herbert; Bader, Victoria; Poupko, Raphy; Wachtel, Ellen J.; Luz, Zeev
Date of Publication (YYYY-MM-DD):2002
Title of Journal:Journal of American Chemical Society
Journal Abbrev.:J. Am. Chem. Soc.
Issue / Number:51
Start Page:15286
End Page:15301
Copyright:Copyright © 2002 American Chemical Society
Review Status:Peer-review
Audience:Experts Only
Intended Educational Use:No
Abstract / Description:Nona-alkanoyloxy tribenzocyclononene (CTV-n, where n is the number of carbons in the side chains) were prepared for n = 2 to 14. The homologues of this series appear in two stable isomeric forms, rigid crown and flexible saddle. We report on their isomerization equilibria and dynamics in solution and on their mesomorphic properties in the neat state. The crown-saddle equilibrium and interconversion kinetics of the CTV-8 isomers were studied in dimethyl formamide solutions using high-resolution 1H NMR in the temperature range from 50 to 130 C. At lower temperatures, the isomerization is too slow to measure. In this range the equilibrium saddle fraction increases from ~0.40 to ~0.65, whereas the isomerization rate increases from ~10-4 to ~1 s-1. The saddle isomer undergoes fast pseudorotation at room temperature, but below about -50 C, it becomes slow enough to affect the NMR line width. The rate parameters for this process were estimated from the carbon-13 spectra in methylene chloride solutions to be, kp(-100 C) 1.7 × 103 s-1 and Ea 9.6 kJ/mol. The slow crown-saddle isomerization at room temperature (half-life of about one year) allows quantitative separation (by chromatography) of the two isomers and their separate investigation. When the alkanoyloxy side chains are sufficiently long both isomers are mesogenic (n 4 for the saddle and n 5 for the crown), exhibiting hexagonal columnar mesophases. The structure, dynamics, and mesomorphic properties of these mesophase were investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and NMR. The lattice parameters of the crown and saddle mesophases of corresponding homologues are almost identical and increase monotonically with increasing length of the side chains. The clearing temperatures of the saddle isomers are consistently lower than those of the corresponding crowns. Within each series, the clearing temperatures are almost independent of the length of the side chains (156 to 170 C for the crown and 115 to 148 C for the saddle). The thermal and kinetic properties of the neat compounds lead to peculiar phase sequences, as observed in the polarizing microscope and in the DSC thermogram, involving repeated, back and forth, interconversion between the two isomers. Carbon-13 MAS NMR measurements of the crown and saddle mesophases of several homologues were carried out. The spectra of the crown mesophase exhibit dynamic features consistent with planar 3-fold molecular jumps about the column axes. A quantitative analysis for the CTV-8 crown homologue yielded the following Arrhenius parameters, A = 3.1 × 1022s-1 and Ea = 130.1kJ/mol. These unusually high values suggest that the barrier to the jump process is temperature dependent, decreasing with increasing temperature. The rate of this 3-fold jump process is slower for the lower homologues and faster for the higher ones. In contrast, the saddle isomers in the mesophase do not show dynamic effects in their carbon-13 MAS spectra. They do not undergo pseudorotation, and it appears that the molecules remain locked within the columns in a saddle conformation, up to the clearing temperature. However, on (super-)cooling to room temperature and below, selective line broadening is observed in their carbon-13 MAS spectra. This suggests that the saddle conformation is twisted in the mesophase and undergoes fast high-amplitude jumps between the twisted forms. On cooling, these high-amplitude librations freeze out to give an orientationally disordered state. On a very long time scale (of the order of days at 100 C), the saddle mesophase transforms into that of the crown, apparently by sublimation.
Comment of the Author/Creator:This work was supported by the German-Israeli Foundation, G.I.F., Project No. I-558-218.05/97. We thank Professor H. -H. Limbach and Dr. Peter Tolstoy for performing preliminary low temperature NMR meaurements of saddle CTV-2 in Freon solutions.
External Publication Status:published
Document Type:Article
Communicated by:Wulf Kaiser
Affiliations:MPI für medizinische Forschung/Abteilung Biophysik
MPI für medizinische Forschung/Nachwuchsgruppe Ion Channel Structure
External Affiliations:Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Identifiers:URI:http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/article.cgi/jacsat/200... [Fulltext HTML]
URI:http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/jacsat/20... [Abstract]
URI:http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/article.cgi/jacsat/200... [Fulltext PDF]
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