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          Institute: MPI für evolutionäre Anthropologie     Collection: Publications MPI for Evolutionary Anthropology     Display Documents



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ID: 251099.0, MPI für evolutionäre Anthropologie / Publications MPI for Evolutionary Anthropology
Wave-Like Spread of Ebola Zaire
Authors:Walsh, Peter D.; Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.
Language:English
Date of Publication (YYYY-MM-DD):2005
Title of Journal:PLoS Biology
Volume:3
Issue / Number:11
Sequence Number of Article:e371
Copyright:© 2005 Walsh et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Review Status:Peer-review
Audience:Not Specified
Abstract / Description:In the past decade the Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV) has emerged repeatedly into human populations in central Africa and caused massive die-offs of gorillas and chimpanzees. We tested the view that emergence events are independent and caused by ZEBOV variants that have been long resident at each locality. Phylogenetic analyses place the earliest known outbreak at Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo, very near to the root of the ZEBOV tree, suggesting that viruses causing all other known outbreaks evolved from a Yambuku-like virus after 1976. The tendency for earlier outbreaks to be directly ancestral to later outbreaks suggests that outbreaks are epidemiologically linked and may have occurred at the front of an advancing wave. While the ladder-like phylogenetic structure could also bear the signature of positive selection, our statistical power is too weak to reach a conclusion in this regard. Distances among outbreaks indicate a spread rate of about 50 km per year that remains consistent across spatial scales. Viral evolution is clocklike, and sequences show a high level of small-scale spatial structure. Genetic similarity decays with distance at roughly the same rate at all spatial scales. Our analyses suggest that ZEBOV has recently spread across the region rather than being long persistent at each outbreak locality. Controlling the impact of Ebola on wild apes and human populations may be more feasible than previously recognized.
External Publication Status:published
Document Type:Article
Communicated by:Gisela Lausberg
Affiliations:MPI für evolutionäre Anthropologie/Department of Primatology
External Affiliations:Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Identifiers:DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030371
URL:http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=...
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