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ID: 304284.0, MPI für Meteorologie / Atmosphere in the Earth System
Nitrogen and sulfur deposition on regional and global scales: A multimodel evaluation
Authors:Dentener, F.; Drevet, J.; Lamarque, J. F.; Bey, I.; Eickhout, B.; Fiore, A. M.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L. W.; Krol, M.; Kulshrestha, U. C.; Lawrence, M.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Rast, S.; Shindell, D.; Stevenson, D.; Van Noije, T.; Atherton, C.; Bell, N.; Bergman, D.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, B.; Doherty, R.; Ellingsen, K.; Galloway, J.; Gauss, M.; Montanaro, V.; Muller, J. F.; Pitari, G.; Rodriguez, J.; Sanderson, M.; Solmon, F.; Strahan, S.; Schultz, M.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Wild, O.
Date of Publication (YYYY-MM-DD):2006-10-28
Title of Journal:Global Biogeochemical Cycles
Journal Abbrev.:Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle
Issue / Number:4
Sequence Number of Article:GB4003
Review Status:Peer-review
Audience:Not Specified
Abstract / Description:We use 23 atmospheric chemistry transport models to calculate current and future (2030) deposition of reactive nitrogen (NOy, NHx) and sulfate (SOx) to land and ocean surfaces. The models are driven by three emission scenarios: (1) current air quality legislation (CLE); (2) an optimistic case of the maximum emissions reductions currently technologically feasible (MFR); and (3) the contrasting pessimistic IPCC SRES A2 scenario. An extensive evaluation of the present-day deposition using nearly all information on wet deposition available worldwide shows a good agreement with observations in Europe and North America, where 60–70% of the model-calculated wet deposition rates agree to within ±50% with quality-controlled measurements. Models systematically overestimate NHx deposition in South Asia, and underestimate NOy deposition in East Asia. We show that there are substantial differences among models for the removal mechanisms of NOy, NHx, and SOx, leading to ±1 σ variance in total deposition fluxes of about 30% in the anthropogenic emissions regions, and up to a factor of 2 outside. In all cases the mean model constructed from the ensemble calculations is among the best when comparing to measurements. Currently, 36–51% of all NOy, NHx, and SOx is deposited over the ocean, and 50–80% of the fraction of deposition on land falls on natural (nonagricultural) vegetation. Currently, 11% of the world's natural vegetation receives nitrogen deposition in excess of the “critical load” threshold of 1000 mg(N) m−2 yr−1. The regions most affected are the United States (20% of vegetation), western Europe (30%), eastern Europe (80%), South Asia (60%), East Asia (40%), southeast Asia (30%), and Japan (50%). Future deposition fluxes are mainly driven by changes in emissions, and less importantly by changes in atmospheric chemistry and climate. The global fraction of vegetation exposed to nitrogen loads in excess of 1000 mg(N) m−2 yr−1 increases globally to 17% for CLE and 25% for A2. In MFR, the reductions in NOy are offset by further increases for NHx deposition. The regions most affected by exceedingly high nitrogen loads for CLE and A2 are Europe and Asia, but also parts of Africa.
Free Keywords:aerosols; modeling; nitrogen cycle
External Publication Status:published
Document Type:Article
Version Comment:Automatic journal name synchronization
Communicated by:Carola Kauhs
Affiliations:MPI für Meteorologie
External Affiliations:Commiss European Communities, Joint Res Ctr, Inst Environm & Sustainabl, I-21020 Ispra, Italy.; Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.; Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, Div Atmospher Chem, Boulder, CO 80307 USA.; Netherlands Environm Assessment Agcy, RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands.; NOAA, Geophys Fluid Dynam Lab, Princeton, NJ USA.; CEA, CNRS, Lab Sci Climat & Environm, Gif Sur Yvette, France.; Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, WUR, Wageningen, Netherlands.; Ind Technol Inst, Analyt & Environm Chem Div, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.; Max Planck Inst Chem, D-6500 Mainz, Germany.; Observ Midi Pyrenees, Lab Aerol, Toulouse, France.; Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg, Germany.; NASA, Goddard Inst Space Studies, New York, NY 10025 USA.; Univ Edinburgh, Inst Atmosph & Environm Sci, Sch Geosci, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Midlothian, Scotland.; Royal Netherlands Meteorol Inst, KNMI, Atmospher Composit Climate Res & Seismol Dept, De Bilt, Netherlands.; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab, Div Atmospher Sci, Livermore, CA USA.; Int Inst Appl Syst Anal, Laxenburg, Austria.; Met Off, Exeter, Devon, England.; Univ Oslo, Dept Geosci, Oslo, Norway.; Univ Virginia, Dept Environm Sci, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA.; Univ Aquila, I-67100 Laquila, Italy.; Inst Aeron Spatiale Belgique, Brussels, Belgium.; Goddard Earth Sci & Technol Ctr, Baltimore, MD USA.; JAMSTEC, Frontier Res Ctr Global Change, Atmospher Composit Res Program, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
Identifiers:ISI:000241700200001 [ID No:1]
ISSN:0886-6236 [ID No:2]
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