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          Institute: MPI für Infektionsbiologie     Collection: Department of Molecular Biology     Display Documents

ID: 611181.0, MPI für Infektionsbiologie / Department of Molecular Biology
Age of the Association between Helicobacter pylori and Man
Authors:Moodley, Yoshan; Linz, Bodo; Bond, Robert P.; Nieuwoudt, Martin; Soodyall, Himla; Schlebusch, Carina M.; Bernhöft, Steffi; Hale, James; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Mugisha, Lawrence; van der Merwe, Schalk W.; Achtman, Mark
Date of Publication (YYYY-MM-DD):2012-05
Title of Journal:PLoS Pathogens
Journal Abbrev.:PLoS Pathog.
Issue / Number:5
Sequence Number of Article:e1002693
Copyright:Copyright Moodley et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Review Status:Peer-review
Audience:Experts Only
Abstract / Description:When modern humans left Africa ca. 60,000 years ago (60 kya), they were already infected with Helicobacter pylori, and these bacteria have subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. But how long were humans infected by H. pylori prior to the out-of-Africa event? Did this co-evolution predate the emergence of modern humans, spanning the species divide? To answer these questions, we investigated the diversity of H. pylori in Africa, where both humans and H. pylori originated. Three distinct H. pylori populations are native to Africa: hpNEAfrica in Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan speakers, hpAfrica1 in Niger-Congo speakers and hpAfrica2 in South Africa. Rather than representing a sustained co-evolution over millions of years, we find that the coalescent for all H. pylori plus its closest relative H. acinonychis dates to 88-116 kya. At that time the phylogeny split into two primary super-lineages, one of which is associated with the former hunter-gatherers in southern Africa known as the San. H. acinonychis, which infects large felines, resulted from a later host jump from the San, 43-56 kya. These dating estimates, together with striking phylogenetic and quantitative human-bacterial similarities show that H. pylori is approximately as old as are anatomically modern humans. They also suggest that H. pylori may have been acquired via a single host jump from an unknown, non-human host. We also find evidence for a second Out of Africa migration in the last 52,000 years, because hpEurope is a hybrid population between hpAsia2 and hpNEAfrica, the latter of which arose in northeast Africa 36-52 kya, after the Out of Africa migrations around 60 kya.
Comment of the Author/Creator:This work was supported by a special grant from the Max-Planck Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften, the ERA-NET PathoGenoMics (project HELDIVNET, 0313930B), the Science Foundation of Ireland (05/FE1/B882), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES), and the German Research Foundation (DFG, grant SFB 900/A1).
External Publication Status:published
Document Type:Article
Communicated by:Beate Löhr
Affiliations:MPI für Infektionsbiologie/Department of Molecular Biology
External Affiliations:[Moodley, Yoshan; Linz, Bodo; Bernhoeft, Steffi; Achtman, Mark] Max Planck Inst Infekt Biol, Dept Mol Biol, Berlin, Germany.; [Moodley, Yoshan] Univ Vet Med Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Inst Ethol, Dept Integrat Biol & Evolut, Vienna, Austria.; [Linz, Bodo] Penn State Univ, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.; [Bond, Robert P.; Nieuwoudt, Martin; van der Merwe, Schalk W.] Univ Pretoria, Dept Immunol, Hepatol & GI Res Lab, ZA-0002 Pretoria, South Africa.; [Soodyall, Himla; Schlebusch, Carina M.] Univ Witwatersrand, Human Genom Divers & Dis Res Unit, Div Human Genet, Sch Pathol,Natl Hlth Lab Serv, Johannesburg, South Africa.; [Hale, James; Achtman, Mark] Natl Univ Ireland Univ Coll Cork, Environm Res Inst, Cork, Ireland.; [Hale, James; Achtman, Mark] Natl Univ Ireland Univ Coll Cork, Dept Microbiol, Cork, Ireland.
Identifiers:ISI:000305322900027 [ID No:1]
ISSN:1553-7374 [ID No:2]
DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002693 [ID No:3]
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