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          Institute: MPI für Astronomie     Collection: Publikationen_mpia     Display Documents

ID: 693585.0, MPI für Astronomie / Publikationen_mpia
Herschel/PACS Spectroscopic Survey of protostars in Orion: the origin of far-infrared CO emission
Authors:Manoj, P.; Watson, D. M.; Neufeld, D. A.; Megeath, S. T.; Vavrek, R.; Yu, V.; Visser, R.; Bergin, E. A.; Fischer, W. J.; Tobin, J. J.; Stutz, A. M.; Ali, B.; Wilson, T. L.; Di Francesco, J.; Osorio, M.; Maret, S.; Poteet, C. A.
Date of Publication (YYYY-MM-DD):2013
Title of Journal:The Astrophysical Journal
Issue / Number:2
Start Page:id. 83 (26 pp)
Audience:Not Specified
Abstract / Description:We present far-infrared (57-196 μm) spectra of 21 protostars in the Orion molecular clouds. These were obtained with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on board the Herschel Space observatory as part of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey program. We analyzed the emission lines from rotational transitions of CO, involving rotational quantum numbers in the range J up = 14-46, using PACS spectra extracted within a projected distance of lsim2000 AU centered on the protostar. The total luminosity of the CO lines observed with PACS (L CO) is found to increase with increasing protostellar luminosity (L bol). However, no significant correlation is found between L CO and evolutionary indicators or envelope properties of the protostars such as bolometric temperature, T bol, or envelope density. The CO rotational (excitation) temperature implied by the line ratios increases with increasing rotational quantum number J, and at least 3-4 rotational temperature components are required to fit the observed rotational diagram in the PACS wavelength range. The rotational temperature components are remarkably invariant between protostars and show no dependence on L bol, T bol, or envelope density, implying that if the emitting gas is in local thermodynamic equilibrium, the CO emission must arise in multiple temperature components that remain independent of L bol over two orders of magnitudes. The observed CO emission can also be modeled as arising from a single-temperature gas component or from a medium with a power-law temperature distribution; both of these require sub-thermally excited molecular gas at low densities (n(H2) <~ 106 cm-3) and high temperatures (T gsim 2000 K). Our results suggest that the contribution from photodissociation regions, produced along the envelope cavity walls from UV-heating, is unlikely to be the dominant component of the CO emission observed with PACS. Instead, the "universality" of the rotational temperatures and the observed correlation between L CO and L bol can most easily be explained if the observed CO emission originates in shock-heated, hot (T >~ 2000 K), sub-thermally excited (n(H2) <~ 106 cm-3) molecular gas. Post-shock gas at these densities is more likely to be found within the outflow cavities along the molecular outflow or along the cavity walls at radii >~ several 100-1000 AU. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
Free Keywords:circumstellar matter; ISM: jets and outflows; molecular processes; stars: formation; techniques: spectroscopic
External Publication Status:published
Document Type:Article
Communicated by:N. N.
Affiliations:MPI für Astronomie
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