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          Institute: MPI für Festkörperforschung     Collection: FKF Publikationen 2002     Display Documents

ID: 7095.0, MPI für Festkörperforschung / FKF Publikationen 2002
Single crystals of triple-layered cuprates Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ: growth, annealing and characterization
Authors:Liang, B.; Lin, C. T.; Shang, P.; Yang, G.
Date of Publication (YYYY-MM-DD):2002
Title of Journal:Physica C
Issue / Number:1-2
Start Page:75
End Page:88
Review Status:Peer-review
Audience:Not Specified
Abstract / Description:The growth of Pb-free Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+delta (Bi-2223) single
crystals has been investigated using the travelling solvent
floating zone technique under mixed gas flow of argon and
oxygen. Slow growth rates of 0.20, 0.10, 0.06 and 0.04 mm/h
were applied to four growth runs. Nearly single-phase Bi-2223
crystals sized up to 10 x 6 x 0.5 mm(3) were obtained using a
slow growth rate of 0.04 mm/h and subsequent annealing. The
crystals were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray
diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, magnetic
susceptibility and resistivity measurements. It is found that
the growth rate affects the phase formation of Bi-2223
crystals. Both XRD and magnetic susceptibility measurements
show that the as-grown crystals obtained at a slow growth rate
of 0.04 mm/h consist of >90% Bi-2223 phase, whereas as-grown
crystals obtained at rates of 0.10 and 0.20 mm/h contain
predominantly Bi-2212, Ca2CuO3 and a small quantity of Bi-2223
phase. Post-annealing experiments were carried out at 500-850
degreesC for 120-500 h in an effort to improve the crystal
quality with respect to phase purity and oxygen homogeneity. A
phase-transformation process from Bi-2212 to Bi-2223 was
observed. The results of XRD and susceptibility measurements
show that the relative fraction of the Bi-2223 phase increases
upon increased annealing temperature and/or prolonged annealing
time while the Bi-2212 phase diminishes gradually, resulting in
crystals that were of 98-99% Bi-2223 phase. Such a phase
transformation from Bi-2212 into Bi-2223 might be explained via
a layer-intercalation mechanism. The refinement results of XRD
data show that pure-phase Bi-2223 crystals have orthorhombic
symmetry with lattice parameters of a = 5.408(2) Angstrom, b =
5.413(7) Angstrom, and c = 36.868(1) Angstrom. Narrow full
width at half maximum of 0.16-0.20degrees determined from X-ray
rocking curve measurements demonstrates the high crystallinity
of Bi-2223 crystals. The superconducting transition temperature
T, increases from 102 K for as-grown crystals to 110 K for
crystals annealed at 850 degreesC for 500 h in O-2 flow. The
in-plane and out-of-plane resistances as a function of
temperature measured on annealed crystals show that the general
features of the resistivity of Bi-2223 crystals are similar to
those of Bi-2212 crystals. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All
rights reserved.
Free Keywords:Bi-2223; crystal growth; TSFZ; annealing; X-ray diffraction;
External Publication Status:published
Document Type:Article
Communicated by:Michaela Asen-Palmer
Affiliations:MPI für Festkörperforschung
External Affiliations:; Max Planck Inst Festkorperforsch, Heisenbergstr 1, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany
; Univ Oxford, Dept Mat, Oxford OX1 3PH, England
; Univ Birmingham, Sch Met & Mat, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England
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