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          Institute: MPI für Astronomie     Collection: Publikationen_mpia     Display Documents

ID: 742813.0, MPI für Astronomie / Publikationen_mpia
A gas density drop in the inner 6 AU of the transition disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 139614 . Further evidence for a giant planet inside the disk?
Authors:Carmona, A.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Baruteau, C.; Matter, A.; van den Ancker, M.; Pinte, C.; Kóspál, A.; Audard, M.; Liebhart, A.; Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Pinilla, P.; Regály, Z.; Güdel, M.; Henning, T.; Cieza, L. A.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Meeus, G.; Eiroa, C.
Date of Publication (YYYY-MM-DD):2017
Title of Journal:Astronomy and Astrophysics
Start Page:id. A118 (29 pp)
Audience:Not Specified
Abstract / Description:Context. Quantifying the gas surface density inside the dust cavities and gaps of transition disks is important to establish their origin. <BR /> Aims: We seek to constrain the surface density of warm gas in the inner disk of HD 139614, an accreting 9 Myr Herbig Ae star with a (pre-)transition disk exhibiting a dust gap from 2.3 ± 0.1 to 5.3 ± 0.3 AU. <BR /> Methods: We observed HD 139614 with ESO/VLT CRIRES and obtained high-resolution (R 90 000) spectra of CO ro-vibrational emission at 4.7 μm. We derived constraints on the disk's structure by modeling the CO isotopolog line-profiles, the spectroastrometric signal, and the rotational diagrams using grids of flat Keplerian disk models. <BR /> Results: We detected υ = 1 → 0 12CO, 2→1 12CO, 1→0 13CO, 1→0 C18O, and 1→0 C17O ro-vibrational lines. Lines are consistent with disk emission and thermal excitation. 12CO υ = 1 → 0 lines have an average width of 14 km s-1, Tgas of 450 K and an emitting region from 1 to 15 AU. 13CO and C18O lines are on average 70 and 100 K colder, 1 and 4 km s-1 narrower than 12CO υ = 1 → 0, and are dominated by emission at R ≥ 6 AU. The 12CO υ = 1 → 0 composite line-profile indicates that if there is a gap devoid of gas it must have a width narrower than 2 AU. We find that a drop in the gas surface density (δgas) at R < 5-6 AU is required to be able to simultaneously reproduce the line-profiles and rotational diagrams of the three CO isotopologs. Models without a gas density drop generate 13CO and C18O emission lines that are too broad and warm. The value of δgas can range from 10-2 to 10-4 depending on the gas-to-dust ratio of the outer disk. We find that the gas surface density profile at 1 < R < 6 AU is flat or increases with radius. We derive a gas column density at 1 < R < 6 AU of NH = 3 × 1019-1021 cm-2 (7 × 10-5-2.4 × 10-3 g cm-2) assuming NCO = 10-4NH. We find a 5σ upper limit on the CO column density NCO at R ≤ 1 AU of 5 × 1015 cm-2 (NH ≤ 5 × 1019 cm-2). <BR /> Conclusions: The dust gap in the disk of HD 139614 has molecular gas. The distribution and amount of gas at R ≤ 6 AU in HD 139614 is very different from that of a primordial disk. The gas surface density in the disk at R ≤ 1 AU and at 1 < R < 6 AU is significantly lower than the surface density that would be expected from the accretion rate of HD 139614 (10-8 M yr-1) assuming a standard viscous α-disk model. The gas density drop, the non-negative density gradient in the gas inside 6 AU, and the absence of a wide (>2 AU) gas gap, suggest the presence of an embedded <2 MJ planet at around 4 AU. Based on CRIRES observations collected at the VLTI and VLT (European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile) with program 091.C-0671(B).
Free Keywords:protoplanetary disks; stars: pre-main sequence; planets and satellites: formation; techniques: spectroscopic; stars: variables: T Tauri; Herbig Ae/Be
External Publication Status:published
Document Type:Article
Communicated by:N. N.
Affiliations:MPI für Astronomie
Identifiers:ISSN:0004-6361 %R 10.1051/0004-6361/201628472
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